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1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE.

Beginning in the 1980s, this paradigm came under severe attack, primarily by so-called biblical minimalist scholars who argued that as the HB was edited in its final form during the 5th century (c.) BC (3), any reference in the text to events earlier than 500 BC were false (4).

Accordingly, the events ascribed to the early Israelite and Judean kings from the 10th–9th c. BCE editors of the HB who resided in postexilic times in Babylon and later in Jerusalem. When British archaeologists carried out the first controlled excavations in the highlands of Edom (southern Jordan) in the 1970s and 1980s (7), using relative ceramic dating methods, they assumed that the Iron Age (IA) in Edom did not start before the 7th c.

Java Script enables you to fully navigate and make a purchase on our site. Advances in IA Levantine archaeology can serve as a model for other historical archaeologies around the world that engage ancient historical texts such as the Mahabharata and other ancient writings in India (9), the Sagas of Iceland (10), and Mayan glyphs (11).The work reported here represents the large-scale excavations at the IA copper production site of Khirbat en-Nahas (KEN) (12) and is a part of a deep-time study of the impact of mining and metallurgy over the past 8 millennia in Jordan's Faynan district.The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.(1), asserting that he had discovered King Solomon's mines in the Faynan district (the northern part of biblical Edom), ≈50 km south of the Dead Sea in what is now southern Jordan.Some of the casualities of the scholarly debate between the traditional biblical scholarship and biblical minimalists has been the historicity of David and Solomon–the latter of which is traditionally cross-dated by biblical text (1 Kings ; ; and 2 Chronicles 12:2–9) and the military topographic list of the Egyptian Pharaoh Sheshonq I (Shishak in the HB) found at the Temple of Amun in Thebes and dated to the early 10th c. The power and prestige of Solomon as represented in the Bible has been most recently challenged on archaeological grounds by I. BCE, confirming the minimalist position concerning the HB and archaeology. Coinciding with the general “deconstruction” of Solomon as an historic figure, Glueck's identification of the Faynan mines as an important 10th c.


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